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TÉRMINOS Y CONCEPTOS CLAVE DE IMPORTACIONES

TÉRMINOS Y CONCEPTOS CLAVE
Es importante conocer algunos conceptos claves que nos ayudaran entender mejor el mundo del comercio internacional y el flujo de mercancias entre diferentes naciones
Arancel
Tarifa oficial de derechos que deben cargarse sobre los bienes importados en el momento de llegar a la Aduana. Los aranceles pueden ser por volumen o ad valorem. El fin de estos tributos ha sido a veces solamente la recaudación, pero las más veces su objeto suele ser la protección de las producciones nacionales contra la competencia extranjera.

Dumping
La venta de bienes o servicios en el extranjero a un precio menor que el del mercado interior, o la venta en el extranjero por debajo del coste de producción. Los círculos proteccionistas toman suelen acusar de dumping a los exportadores extranjeros que compiten con las producciones locales a bajo precio.

Laissez faire
Expresión inventada por el fisiócrata Mercier de la Rivière (), quien, ante la pregunta de Catalina la Grande de Rusia de qué debía hacer un Gobierno, contestó: ”¡Dejad hacer, dejad pasar, todo funciona solo!”. Se utiliza para exigir que el Estado intervenga lo menos posible en la economía, todo lo más manteniendo los tribunales de Justicia, organizando la defensa nacional y encargándose de construir obras y mantener servicios que los privados no pueden financiar.
Librecambio
Se entiende por librecambismo la plena libertad de comercio interior e internacional. Según esta doctrina, los impuestos cargados sobre las mercancías extranjeras deben ser los mismos que los impuestos indirectos que soportan las mercancías en el comercio interior.

Proteccionismo
Doctrina que defiende una política económica de impedimentos a la importación de bienes y servicios para proteger la producción nacional contra la competencia extranjera. Los instrumentos utilizados pueden ser aranceles, contingentes o tipos de cambios múltiples.

Reciprocidad
Doctrina que rechaza los desarmes arancelarios unilaterales y sostiene que la liberación del comercio internacional debe hacerse en términos de quid pro quo, olvidando los beneficios que para el crecimiento económico y el bienestar de los consumidores tiene el aumento y abaratamiento de las importaciones.

Tipo de cambio monetario y real
Tipo de cambio monetario es la cantidad de unidades de una divisa que se paga por la unidad de otra divisa. Esta fracción no indica la verdadera relación de valor de dos monedas, pues debe corregirse por el poder de compra de cada una en su mercado. El tipo de cambio real es la relación del valor de dos monedas corregido por algún índice de precios. Este tipo de cambio real puede cambiar porque fluctúa el tipo de cambio monetario o, estando el cambio monetario fijo, la inflación es mayor en un país que en otro.

Uniones aduaneras
La supresión de aranceles y contingentes entre los países de una Unión Aduanera, mientras se mantiene un arancel exterior común, es una excepción a la regla de no discriminación que forma la esencia del libre comercio.
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