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PALETS PARA TRANSPORTE CARGA

PALETS PARA TRANSPORTE CARGA

PALETS PARA TRANSPORTE CARGA
PALETS PARA TRANSPORTE CARGA
Un  palet, o  paleta es un armazón de madera, plástico u otros materiales empleado en el movimiento de carga ya que facilita el levantamiento y manejo con pequeñas grúas hidráulicas, llamadas carretillas elevadoras. El primero en emplearlo fue el ejército estadounidense para el suministro de sus tropas en Europa durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
El palet consiste en una plataforma, generalmente de madera, constituida por dos pisos unidos por largeros, que puede ser manipulada por carretillas elevadoras de horquillas o transpalets y que permite el agrupamiento de la mercancía sobre ella, constituyendo la unidad de carga. Permite la manipulación y distribución de la mercancía hasta el destino final, en condiciones óptimas y con el mínimo esfuerzo. La apertura de los mercados y la globalización económica hacen que el comercio sea cada día mayor y ha convertido al palet en un elemento imprescindible para la distribución de los productos. Actualmente es impensable funcionar sin los palets.
LAS MEDIDAS Y LA RESISTENCIA DEL PALET
Las dimensiones del palet vienen fijadas de forma que sean submúltiplos de las dimensiones longitudinal y transversal del lugar donde se realice el transporte o transportes (caja de camión o de vagón ferroviario, bodegas de buque o de avión, etc.) y a ser posible múltiplo de las dimensiones del producto o del envase en que se encuentre el producto que se pretenda paletizar.
Por otro lado, está la necesidad de utilizar medidas estandar para todos. La utilización del palet normalizado viene determinada en gran parte por las necesidades del cliente y del medio de transporte.
En la actualidad existen dos medidas de palets normalizadas, el europalet (1.200 x 800 mm) y el universal (1.200 x 1.000 mm). El primero se utiliza sobre todo en Europa y el universal es propio del mercado americano y japonés.
Otra característica importante es la resistencia del palet, muy relacionada con su función. Se consideran varios tipos de resistencia:
1º. La resistencia a la compresión: sirve para conocer la carga máxima que puede soportar el palet.
2º. La resistencia a la flexión: dato importante para la utilización de eslingas.
3º. La resistencia al impacto: a golpes en el caso de caida accidental y su posible rotura.
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